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Spring Cleaning for Condos

Mar 26, 2015   //   by Rory Gill   //   All Posts, Condominiums, Tips  //  No Comments

This harsh winter was hard on all of us.  Unless you’re particularly lucky, it was probably tough on your condo building and budget, too.   Once the snow finally clears, here are some commonsense tips to rescue your building from this winter and spruce it up for the summer:

  1. Inspect the damage.  Have a few different unit owners do a walkthrough of the building together.  Start in the basement and work your way up.  Look for any changes in the building – new cracks, new signs of water, or any new damage.  If you see anything worrisome, hiring a licensed home inspector for a follow up walkthrough may be a valuable investment for the HOA.
  2. Hire a cleaning service for the common area.  Unless you already use a cleaning service, a one-time professional cleaning service will breathe some new life and fresh air into the building.
  3. Undertake that project you’ve been putting off.  If you’ve been putting off a maintenance or renovation project, now may be the time to proceed.  Line up a contractor soon, though.  With post-winter repairs, this may be a busy time for contractors.
  4. Check in with your budget.  If you pay for snow removal, you’ve probably exceeded your budget.  Take a look at the budget now and make any corrections before there’s a problem (e.g. when the master insurance bill becomes due).  If more money is needed, try a temporary increase in condo fees instead of a special assessment.  It smoothes out the pain and makes collections much easier.
  5. Divide up the work.  If you’re going to do some work yourself, make sure everybody’s on the same page.  Will the association reimburse for the woodchips or paint?  Are residents happy with a flower garden by the front door?  Discussing this in advance can avoid conflict later.

Best of luck and happy spring (when it finally arrives)!

Can I legally build a roof deck?

Apr 2, 2014   //   by Rory Gill   //   All Posts, Condominiums, Real Estate  //  No Comments


Can I legally build a roof deck?

With warmer weather (hopefully) in our near future, people are starting to ask me more questions about roof decks and how to legally build them.  In the city, they add great outdoor space.  More importantly, they can significantly increase your property value – if you build it legally.

So, how do you know whether you can legally build one?  You will need to comply with two key sets of rules – your condo association’s bylaws and the municipal zoning ordinance.

Condo Association Bylaws: Take a close read of your condominium documents to determine whether you have the right to build.  Your master deed should explain who has the right to build on the roof, if anyone.  A well-drafted master deed will anticipate this question and explain in detail the rules for roof deck construction, maintenance, and liability.

Municipal Zoning Ordinance or Bylaw: Most communities where roof decks are popular limit the size and scope of roof decks.  Common restrictions in Boston often involve the total height of the roof deck, how close the deck sits to the roof’s edge, and the size of the roof deck hatch or head house.  Many Boston neighborhoods also forbid altering the profile of an existing roof to accommodate a roof deck.

Once you had carefully read the condominium and municipal bylaws, you will learn whether you can construct a roof deck and what conditions or limitations you need to consider.  From there, you (or your contractor or architect) can prepare your building permit application.

Good luck and enjoy!


A typical roof deck rule for Boston neighborhoods: “An open roof deck may be erected on the main roof of a building with a flat roof or a roof with a slope of less than five degrees providing that (a) such deck is less than one foot above the highest point of such roof; (b) the total height of the building, including such deck, does not exceed the maximum height [allowed by the zoning ordinance]; and (c) access is by roof hatch or bulkhead no more than thirty inches in height above such deck unless, after public notice and hearing […], the Board of Appeal grants permission for a stairway headhouse; and (d) an appurtenant hand rail, balustrade, hatch or bulkhead is set back horizontally, one foot for each foot of height of such appurtenant structure, from a roof edge that faces a street more than twenty feet wide.”

Photograph from Boston Roofdecks, a contractor specializing in roof deck construction

How long does an eviction take?

Mar 28, 2014   //   by Rory Gill   //   All Posts, Landlords & Tenants  //  No Comments


Unlike virtually all other types of lawsuits, a court action for eviction – called “Summary Process” in Massachusetts – has a predictable timetable.  So, how long does it take?

Starting the Clock: End the Tenancy.  The eviction process can be calculated from the date the landlord terminates the tenancy, and this varies depending on the type of eviction.  For a delinquent tenants, the tenancy ends once you give them a 14-day notice to pay rent or vacate.  For a month-to-month tenant, it terminates at the end of the next calendar month once you give written notice.  For a term lease, tenancy ends when the lease says it does.

Calculate the Eviction Timeline.  Once the tenancy is over, the eviction process starts once the landlord has the tenant served with a court summons and complaint.  Then, it’s fairly easy to calculate.  The court recognizes the case two Mondays after papers are served.  The trial occurs ten days later (Thursday).  If you (the landlord) win, judgment is issued the next day (Friday).  10 days later (Monday), the court issues the execution enabling the sheriff to remove the tenant.  The sheriff can do that 2 days later.  For those keeping track, this took 30-36 days.

Anticipate the Typical Delays.  Tenants with an attorney or the capability to Google legal self-help materials will find an easy trick to delay the trial date by 2 weeks.  So, plan for this.

So, how long does an eviction take?  30-36 days from the end of tenancy.  44-50 days if the tenants delay the trial.

Of course, this assumes that the landlord wins and makes no missteps in the process.  There are many ways to trip up in the process and even more ways to lose.  So, proceed with caution, expect this timeline, and get professional counsel.

How do I make an offer in a seller’s market?

Mar 24, 2014   //   by Rory Gill   //   All Posts, Real Estate  //  No Comments


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If you’ve been checking out the (very few) recent open houses, you know that Boston is in the midst of an absurdly strong seller’s market.  There is little inventory, home prices are high, and buyers are competing for each listing.

So, how can you make a successful offer in this market?  Aside from offering a ton of money in cash, here are some ways to strengthen your offer:

  1. Present a pre-approval letter.  This point may be obvious, and it’s highly recommended even in a buyer’s market.  This demonstrates to the seller that you’re likely to have the financing to close on the property.  With properties selling quickly, you should have this letter in hand before seriously touring homes.  You’re likely to miss out on the home you saw last Saturday if you’re just starting the pre-approval process on Monday.
  2. Start with your best offer.  Starting negotiations with a low offer and expecting to “split the difference” might be a good strategy in a used car lot with plenty of inventory.  A seller’s market, though, is more like a dealership with one car and many shoppers.  Remember, you’re not in a simple two-party negotiation in today’s market.  Instead, you’re competing with many other potential buyers, and the winning offer will beat its competitors.  So, lead with (or very near) your best reasonable offer.
  3. Don’t make unnecessary demands.  Keep your offer simple.  Asking that the seller include unusual concessions in the sale will work against you.  Once you’re under agreement, you can always ask to buy the seller’s furniture, grill, or anything else.  Including that in your initial offer will make you look difficult when compared to other buyers.
  4. Shorten the inspection and contingency periods.  In a neutral market, a buyer will usually ask for – and get – ten to fourteen days to have a home inspection.  By only asking for a shorter period (seven days), you’re strengthening your offer by taking some risk away from the seller.  If a bad home inspection leads you to back out, the seller will have wasted much less time.  Similarly, quicker deadlines for Purchase & Sale and other steps are attractive to the seller.
  5. Accommodate the seller’s schedule.  Being agreeable to the seller’s closing and moving timetable will make your offer stand out among otherwise equal offers.  Usually, this means a willingness to act quickly and close early.  Each seller is different, though.  Find out when the seller wants to move or needs the money and build the offer around the seller’s schedule.
  6. Offer a higher deposit.  In the greater Boston area, most buyers offer $1,000 as deposit with the offer and a total of 5% when signing the Purchase & Sale Agreement.  By offering more than the standard, you demonstrate your commitment to this deal (and accept some more risk).
  7. Write a personal letter.  All things being equal, some sellers may favor an offer by a prospective buyer who can articulate his sincere and special interest in the property.  This won’t make up for a low offer, but it may make the difference among equal bids.

Boston’s New Landlord Tax

Aug 22, 2013   //   by Rory Gill   //   All Posts, Landlords & Tenants  //  No Comments


Boston Landlords —

The City of Boston has implemented a new bureaucracy to oversee your apartments, and it comes with a brand new tax and registration scheme.  Even though there are many laws and resources to protect tenants from bad living conditions, we’ve decided to enact another one to accomplish the same thing.

All landlords must register their rental units with the City of Boston’s Inspectional Services Department by August 31, 2013.  The registration does not come free.  It’s $25 per unit.  After that, the anticipated annual renewal fee is $15 per unit.

So, what exactly is a rental unit, and who is a landlord?  Well, it’s really quite broad.  You’re responsible for registration and payment even if the unit is vacant or if you’re letting a family member live there rent-free.

The registration system is being set up to make the new inspection ordinance easier for city officials.  They plan to inspect every rental unit in the city every 5 years.  That could mean big penalties and fines for landlords if any defects are uncovered.

What happens if you don’t register?  The city is threatening a fine of $300 per unit per month for unregistered rental units.

Buying New Condos: The Hidden Costs

May 15, 2013   //   by Rory Gill   //   All Posts, Condominiums, Real Estate  //  No Comments


Wouldn’t you like something shiny and new?  Well, in South Boston and other neighborhoods, there’s great deal of new condominium construction ongoing.  That presents some great opportunities for new buyers – the ability to pick your own paint, floors, details, etc. – as well as warranties that you wouldn’t get outside new construction.

Of course, new projects aren’t perfect.  They come with a great deal of unknowns.  Making an offer before seeing the final product can be scary, and the property’s lack of history deprives you of some information.  That much is obvious, though.  Below are some less-obvious considerations when buying a newly constructed condominium.


In a brand new development, you won’t likely qualify for a traditional 30-year fixed mortgage.  That’s because a new property is full of unknowns (owner occupancy rate, condo fee, comparative values, etc.).  Consequently, the new condo unit won’t likely meet the underwriting standards for fixed-rate mortgages.

You’re not without options, however.  You may apply for a variable-rate loan and plan to refinance later.  In some cases, you may have more lending options if you approach the same bank that’s financing the project.

Property Taxes

In the first year of ownership, new condominiums require some extra homework for property taxes.  That’s because municipal tax assessors and collectors are slow to update the property’s information.

When you first move in, the condominium building may be listed with the city as a multifamily building, as though one person owned the whole thing.  That will require the newly formed condo association to receive the tax bill and manually split it up among the owners by percentage interest.  At a new condo’s closing, you will likely be required to sign an agreement to contribute.

More importantly, in cities that have a residential exemption (such as Boston), you will need to apply for it.   The application window opens briefly once every year, and you won’t receive any discounts until you’ve successfully applied for it.  That means that you’ll inevitably be paying a non-resident tax rate for at least some time.  Just don’t miss the city’s application period.  It’ll be an expensive oversight.

Capital Contributions

A new condo building will require a new condo association.  That new condo association will require some capital reserve money.  To raise the money, most new buyers will be required to make a capital contribution – usually equal to two months’ condo fees – at the closing.

Is that fair?  Well, actually, it is.  When you buy into an existing condo association, you indirectly buy a share of the existing condo reserve.  If you’ve adequately reviewed the condo association in an existing development, then you’ve factored the reserves into your purchase price.  In the new development, you’re starting with zero reserves.

5 Homebuying Mistakes

Mar 11, 2013   //   by Rory Gill   //   All Posts, Condominiums, Real Estate, Tips  //  No Comments

Crooked House

I watch the homebuying shows, too.  They give you three options, and you select one.  In real-life homebuying, though, is it that easy?  Well, of course not.  It’s a complicated process with many decisions to make along the way.

When shopping, don’t let the excitement of homebuying distract you from simple ways to make the best-informed deal.  There will always be risks in buying real estate; that’s unavoidable.  However, by doing your homework, you can make an educated decision and avoid these common mistakes.

1. Not being specific.  When you make your offer, don’t assume that you know what’s being included.  If there are any must-have fixtures in the property, specify them in the offer.  You don’t want to be disappointed when you move in to find the key light fixture missing.  You also don’t want to start a bitter fight with the seller over furniture, appliances, or any built-ins.

2. Not reviewing the condo docs.  When buying a condo, you’re buying into a joint enterprise with your neighbors.  When investing in a company, you (hopefully) wouldn’t buy stake without doing any investigation.  A condo is no different.  When making the offer, require the seller to provide you with the condo information for your review.  Take a good look at the condo budget and rules.  Make note of any red flags – repeated litigation, collection difficulties, disorganized records, or abnormally high condo fees.

3. Not checking public information.  While it may take some time at the computer, you can investigate the property and the sellers through some simple public records searches – city/town records, registry of deeds, etc.  When making an offer, it may be helpful to know whether the seller is especially motivated or whether the property has a “history.”

4. Not investigating the surroundings.  After thoroughly researching the home, why not look into the neighboring properties?  Don’t assume that the grassy lot across the street will remain that way.  Look into city records, news articles, zoning rules, property sales for your neighbors.  Although you can’t prevent all development nearby forever, it would be nice to know that a high-rise is planned next door.

5. Not taking advantage of public homebuyer options.  Most cities and towns offer something for homebuyers or developers.  Many of these programs have specific eligibility rules – income limits, geographic zones, property types, and other criteria important to the municipality.  For example, see Salem’s various opportunities.  These offers may not apply to you, but it’s worth checking.

Snow Rules: City-by-City in Massachusetts

Feb 8, 2013   //   by Rory Gill   //   All Posts, Tips, Uncategorized  //  No Comments

Today’s snowstorm is creating a lot of … confusion.  The governor has banned private cars from the road, and almost every city has declared a snow emergency.  What does that mean, though?

Well, every city and town in Massachusetts is different.  In Boston, parked cars are banned from main arteries.  In other cities, parking is banned on all streets.  Others have no restrictions at all.

The process of digging out is also very different city-by-city.  Can you save your parking space, or are parking savers banned?  Do you need to shovel out your sidewalk by law?

Here’s a handy guide to city and town snow restrictions in Massachusetts.  Of course, I couldn’t list every Massachusetts city on here.  If I’ve missed yours, I apologize (let me know, though, and I’ll be sure to add it to the next update).

  Snow Emergency Parking Bans Parking Space Savers Shoveling Requirements
Boston No parking on major arteries as signed Allowed for 48 hours after snow emergency ends Required 3 hours after snowfall ends or sunrise
Brookline No parking on any street. Not allowed Required 30 hours after snowfall
Cambridge No parking on 82 designated streets as signed Not allowed Required 12 hours after snowfall or 1pm



No parking on designated streets.  Parking only allowed on even-numbered side of street in even-numbered months, odd-numbered side for odd-numbered months. Unknown Unknown
Everett No parking on designated streets.  Parking only allowed on even-numbered side of street in even-numbered years odd-numbered side for odd-numbered years. Unknown Unknown
Lowell No parking on any street. Not allowed Required 24 hours after snowfall
Lynn No parking on any street. Not allowed Unknown
Malden No parking on designated streets.  Parking only allowed on even-numbered side of street. Unknown Required 24 hours after snowfall
Medford No parking on main arteries as signed.  No parking on even or odd side of street depending on year. Not allowed Required 6 hours after snowfall ends or sunrise
Newton No parking on any street.  Overnight parking banned November 15 – April 15 Not allowed Required 30 hours after snowfall
Quincy No parking on main arteries as signed.  No parking on even- or odd- side of street depending on year. Unknown Requirements vary by zone.  No shoveling requirement for certain residential zones.
Revere No parking on designated streets. Unknown Unknown
Salem No parking on any street. Not allowed No requirement
Somerville No parking on even-numbered side of street Unknown Required 6 hours after snowfall ends or sunrise
Waltham No parking on any street. Not allowed No requirement
Watertown No parking on any street.  No overnight parking during winter. Not allowed Unknown
Woburn No parking on any street. Not allowed Unknown
Worcester No parking on any street. Not allowed Required 10 hours after snowfall


Announcing UrbanVillage Legal

After working with you and becoming part of the community, I am proud to announce the launch of UrbanVillage Legal – a new kind of law office that’s about you and your neighborhood.

We’re here, as we’ve always been, to protect what’s important to you – your home, your condominium, your neighborhood – your urban village.

What’s in a name?  “Urban village” commits us to your neighborhood and our mission.  We’re focused on the most local of concerns that shape your daily life and long-term prosperity.  Everything that we do starts with your home, protecting your most significant emotional and financial investment.

As any urban villager understands, however, your home isn’t independent of its surroundings.  It’s integrally linked to the larger condominium association, neighborhood, and community.

For that reason, we have developed a unique concentration in matters that relate to you – the multifamily resident and investor.

How are we different?  In order to meet your needs and accomplish our local mission, we have designed everything – our approachable environment, streamlined processes, transparent pricing, and on-demand communication – around your expectations.

First, we’re approachable and excited to work with you.  Many of our clients have never worked with attorneys before. We want you to enjoy your interactions with us at every turn, and we avoid the pretense and aloof attitudes too common in legal services.

We’ve also developed streamlined, efficient processes for our work.  If you’re seeking our counsel in a transaction or dispute, we know that you want us to cut the red tape – not create more of it.  For real estate transactions, we know how to collaborate efficiently with your broker to make the sale hassle-free.

For all of our busy clients, we offer 24/7 access to your case online and on-demand.  In one place, you’ll be able to track deadlines, see appointments, and review all case documents.  The online portal not only keeps your case organized – it allows you a transparent look into our work and our billing.

What’s changing?  With the launch of UrbanVillage Legal, we offer expanded services with a continued commitment to our shared local neighborhoods.  Now, more of our services are available for flat rates – taking the guesswork out of your legal costs.

We’ll continue to offer advice and interesting stories at bostoncondolawyer.com, while publishing a weekly newsletter.

We’re as committed as every to our clients and are excited to announce the opening of UrbanVillage Legal, with expanded service offerings and improved client interface.

Thank you.

Evaluating a condo association when buying

Jan 24, 2013   //   by Rory Gill   //   All Posts, Condominiums, Real Estate, Tips  //  1 Comment

When you purchase a condo, you’re also buying a stake in the larger condo building or complex.  More than anything else, your neighbors and the association will determine your happiness and return on investment.

While home shopping, you’ve probably evaluated the closet space and checked out the bathrooms.  More importantly, though, have you audited the association?  No?  Well, here’s how to get started:

  1. Get the records.  In the Offer to Purchase (or at least the Purchase and Sale Agreement), require the seller to provide the condo association’s documents, rules, and financial statements by a certain date and at their expense.  In this step, you’re not only interested in the documents’ contents; you’re also interested in how easily you obtain the records.  If a condo association delivers incomplete records or delivers them late, it may be a sign of poor management.
  2. Evaluate the financial statements.  Take a good, hard look at the bank statements and budget.  Verify that it’s reasonable and complete.  Then, take a look at the association’s savings reserve.  As a general rule, an association should have savings equal to at least 10-15% of its annual budget.
  3. Evaluate the documents and bylaws.  In this step, you are looking for two issues.  First, make sure that there are no restrictions that would make your life difficult there – bans on dogs, bans on smoking, etc.  Second, consider what rules are not enforced.  If you see a rule that is openly violated by other unit owners, it may be a sign of weak management.
  4. Verify any special assessments.  When a condo association undertakes a large project, it usually pays for it through special assessments.  In those circumstances, each unit owner is charged their share of the project in a mandatory bill.  This can often be a very large expense.  Get signed verifications from the association and the seller that no special assessments are currently being considered.  If there are special assessments to contend with, factor that into the purchase price.
  5. Verify any litigation.  Like special assessments, you should get verification from the seller and the association that they’re not engaged in or facing any litigation.  Otherwise, you’ll be indirectly dragged into the fight.  Also, ask your attorney to review court dockets and deed records to ensure that no significant legal battles are overlooked.